Civil War, Commonwealth and Protectorate
Eleven years after he dissolved Parliament following the rows surrounding the levying of Tunnage and Poundage and religion in the 1628-9 Parliament, Charles I was finally compelled to summon Parliament again as a result of his failure to crush rebellion in Scotland. But he found the Short Parliament of May 1640 unprepared to grant supply as swiftly as he had hoped. The decision to dissolve it and fight the Scots without parliamentary finance, however, proved misguided, for a second confrontation left them the clear victors, and Charles forced to summon a new Parliament to meet in November, to become the notorious Long Parliament which was not finally dissolved until 1660.
Charles I was not in a position to resist the demands of reformers within Parliament in 1640-1, having to accept the attainder and execution of his key minister, the earl of Strafford, and to assent to a series of Acts making changes to