This period includes some of the most turbulent events in the whole course of British history: the Civil War, the trial and execution of King Charles I and the interregnum regimes of 1640-1660. The Short Parliament of 1640, the Long Parliament and `Rump’ (1640-53, 1659-60), the Nominated or 'Barebones' Parliament of 1653, and the three Cromwellian Parliaments of 1654, 1656-8 and 1659 were all difficult assemblies: the very legitimacy of some of them was contested. It was an exceptional period in parliamentary history. There were republican experiments; the Long Parliament was for a time not only a legislative assembly but also provided executive government; Members of the Nominated Assembly of 1653 were not elected at all, but were appointed under the patronage of Olive